our price 17,50 EUR (19,08 USD)
In Stock
our price 17,50 EUR (19,08 USD)
In Stock
our price 17,50 EUR (19,08 USD)
In Stock


arr32020 Viorgons. Prevention and assistance with various diseases. Strokes, heart attacks, traumatic brain injuries (operations).If there is a violation of the... arr32019 Oligopeptides and the nuances of their use This article is devoted to oligopeptides and the nuances of their use. Very often, talking about... arr32019 Healthy Liver - Healthy Skin! You can ask banal questions:How often do you wash your face?Do you brush your teeth?Do you clean... arr32019 Peptides NPCRIZ: Effective Protection of the Liver and Pancreas    The human body works as a single, well-coordinated mechanism and any failure in the work of... arr32019 Anti-age complex NB Anti-AGE Complex NB: The Secret of Stellar Excellence   Friends! It is time for a pleasant... arr32019 NEW PRODUCT Nose Balms "RINOLAX" Nose Balms "RINOLAX"DESCRIPTIONBalsams "Cleansing" and "Regenerating" - innovative, effective... arr32018 Cardiovascular disease prevention September 29, worldwide, at the initiative of the World Heart Federation, with the support of many... arr32018 Previn and Peptide complex 19 - a complex for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases September 29 all over the world, at the initiative of the World Heart Federation, with the support... arr32018 Antitumor effect of peptides The modern period of development of medicine is characterized by significant achievements in the... arr32018 Trap for fat Customer feedback:"I learned about it from my brother, who lost about 7 kg with his help. His... arr32018 Zhenoluten and Endoluten - solving problems related to menopause Want to delay the onset of menopause and stay healthy for a long time? Do not neglect the latest... arr32018 Cytamins is a novel dietary supplements. Cytamins - are products for people who care about their health and appearance. Preservation of... arr32018 Why does not standard cosmetics help? Why does not standard cosmetics help?peptide cosmetics, peptides Any good, modern cream can... arr32018 How do peptides work for weight loss? Peptides are chains of proteins responsible for metabolic processes in our body, as well as for... arr32018 Create protection for immunityCreate protection for immunity   And although the window is still September with a gentle sun and... arr32018 Which peptides are the most important President of the Gerontological Society at the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Medical... arr32018 Revilab Peptide ML - a series of multifunctional AGE-protectors !  Youth and beauty have long been synonymous with the word "health". Today, many of us are... arr32017 Recovering the liver with peptides is extremely important in the fallRecovering the liver with peptides is extremely important in the fall. The aggravation of many... arr32017 Endoluten - treatment of human reproductive disordersRelationship between epiphysis cycles and human ageepiphysis The epiphysis (pineal body) is a small... arr32017 NEW Cosmetics RevilabNEW Cosmetics Revilab The company NPCRIZ constantly cares about its customers and fans of products.... arr32017 Revilab peptide SL ‒ innovation of the future!Modern consumers live in an accelerated pace, value their time and strive for a quick result. Each... arr32017 I was returned to life by peptides NPCRIZ "My name is Zhibek Aidarbekova. I am 58 years old. I live in Almaty, I am a retired police major,... arr32017 Nomination for the Nobel PrizeProfessor Chavinson wanted to extend the life of his parents. Russian Professor Vladimir Havinson... arr32017 Regenart: Joints under protection Diseases of the spine and joints are becoming an increasingly urgent problem in modern society. In... arr32017 What is diabetes?Diabetes and peptides, diabetes treatment. Diabetes is a chronic disease associated with a... arr32017 Why the standard of cosmetics does not help? Any good, modern cream can improve the appearance of the skin because it has moisturizing,... arr32017 The difference between peptides like GHRP-2 and GHRP-6 from Chavinson peptidesAll bodybuilders must read this article!Ghrp peptides A few years ago the world of bodybuilding was... arr32017 Peptides in bodybuildingHormones take a leading position among drugs to increase muscle mass, burn fat and increase stamina.... arr32017 Antitumor activity of peptides. Peptides and cancerThe modern period of development of medicine is characterized by significant achievements in the... arr32017 About therapy of patients with chronic prostatitisIn both scientific and popular editions devoted to the problem of chronic prostatitis, there is a... arr32017 So what is the uniqueness of the peptides NPCRIZ Today, scientists know that aging and disease of an organism begins at the moment when stops... arr32017 A cure for old ageAging is a biological process which in contrast to the time influenced. People have always tried to... arr32017 Research peptides NPCRIZThe deterioration of the peptide Bioregulation in the body reduces its resistance to destabilizing... arr32017 The secret of life is in the nano-peptidesGerontologists Experts say that in homo sapiens, like biological species, the life limit is 110-120... arr32017 The peptides NPCRIZ in sports and bodybuildingNatural peptides of SPB of Institute of Bioregulation and gerontology are widely used in... arr32016 PEPTIDE geroprotectors - prevention of agingSt. Petersburg Institute of Bio-regulation and Gerontology,Saint Petersburg A typical sign of aging... arr32016 A model of complementary interaction of short peptides with the DNA double helixComparison of the spatial arrangement of functional groups of the nucleic bases on the surface of... arr32016 Peptides in cosmeticsPeptides can include not only medicines, but also in other products. For example, Russian scientists... arr32016 Why is all shown interest in peptide bioregulators? The interest on the part of scientists, doctors, beauty industry professionals, and ordinary... arr32016 Peptides NPCRIZ for the prevention and treatment of Zika VirusIn today's time when the world is attacked by new diseases, such as Zik Virus , the NPCRIZ company... arr32016 Serum for skin around the eyes №5Serum for skin around the eyes №5 green BeautifeyeTM and horse chestnut seed extract are directed... arr32016 WHAT IS REVITALIZATION ?Revitalization is a new direction in medicine, designed to facilitate the restoration, or rather,... arr32016 New products 2016  The range of natural peptide bioregulators added another novelty - geroprotector " Bonomarlot... arr32015 NEW Citomax-GlandokortThe complex of peptide fractions obtained from adrenal young animals. The isolated peptides have a...


our price 60,00 EUR (65,40 USD)
In Stock
our price 18,20 EUR (19,84 USD)
Out of Stock
our price 80,00 EUR (87,20 USD)
In Stock

2016 A model of complementary interaction of short peptides with the DNA double helix

Comparison of the spatial arrangement of functional groups of the nucleic bases on the surface of the major groove of DNA double helix and the functional groups of short peptides shows that these polyampholyte structures have the possibility of complementary multi-point interaction. As an example, presents a model of complementary binding of synthetic pineal tetrapeptide Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly sequence nucleotide ACTS in the composition of the leading chains of the DNA double helix, which is repeated on promoterin areas telomere genes and RNA polimerai II. It is shown that regulatory peptides and complementary to them blocks in the composition of double-strand DNA can be bound proton-donor and proton-acceptor interactions involving the molecules of hydration water.

As you know, a normal cell responds to external or internal changes by changes in the intensity of transcription of active genes and RNA synthesis, One of the factors pathological condition is a slowing of these processes, in particular, a violation of the processes of initiation of transcription [12]. At the same time there were reports that some of the proteins that control the cell cycle, can be active as transcription factors [16].

The question about the mechanism of initiation of transcription is solved by the study of the structures of transcription factors and determination of their binding sites with the DNA double helix on promotera (non-coding) region of the gene. Since the appearance of the first works in this area in the early 80-ies of the structural motifs in the structure of the transcription factors of some genes and their complexes with defined sequences of nucleotide pairs of the DNA double helix on promoterin the sites of genes [34, 35]. It is established that, in nucleated cells the activation of chromatin and control of transcription are carried out by a complex system of agonists and transcription factors, including high molecular weight proteins and low molecular weight peptides and short peptides [22, 37].

Then it seemed that the specific activity of many macromolecular transcription factors localized on relatively short sections of the peptide chain, consisting of 30-100 amino acid residues [31]. These observations highlighted a new problem of pharmacology and medicine. You need to find out what is the minimum length and amino acid sequence of a short peptide, directly and selectively contacting with promoterin a portion of a gene and is able to mimic the action of the transcription factor. In more detail the molecular mechanisms of initiation of transcription in the cells presented in the monograph [27. R. 341-403].

The usual approach to finding a binding site in a protein structure is to use immunospecificity methods. So, for example, was determined by plot-chain of laminin consisting of 14 amino acid residues responsible for adhesion of epithelial cells. Further research showed that this peptide can be shortened to five amino acid residues the selectivity of binding to the receptor [19]. A similar problem was posed and solved practically for the peptide hormone erythropoietin. The hormone erythropoietin (MM 46000) promotes the proliferation, differentiation and survival of progenitor cells of erythrocytes. The library of peptides by means of breeding has been found short peptides (14 amino acid residues) exhibiting activity similar to the native hormone [41].

At the same time was isolated and investigated by endogenous regulatory peptides of the person that showed tissue-specific activity when used in ultra-low concentrations. Study of the products of hydrolysis of hemoglobin and peptides contained in the nutrient medium during the cultivation of human erythrocytes, showed that short segments of the chains of globins are active, unusual original hemoglobin: they bind to opiate receptors potentiate the action of bradykinin [24]. Regulatory peptides were also isolated from the living culture of bone marrow cells, examined in relation to specific regulatory activity and called myelopeptide [6].

Experiments in recent years have shown that natural peptide preparations and synthetic analogues - tetrapeptide a certain structure — exhibit tissue-specific activity, participating in the activation of chromatin, and normalizing the rhythm of protein synthesis in tissue culture [1, 4, 5, 9] and at the level of the whole organism [10, 13, 26, 32]. It is possible to assume that short peptides that support autocrine regulation, are mimetikom and high-molecular agonists of transcription factors.

Mechanisms of penetration of short peptides in the cell and in the cell nucleus can be different. According to I. P. ashmarina, the mechanism of penetration of neuropeptides in the cell and into the genome of a neuron is similar to the mechanism of penetration of steroid hormones. More hydrophilic short peptides, in contrast to steroid hormones to overcome lipid membranes in contact with hydrophilic groups of phospholipids on the outer side of the membranes are grouped and enter into a cell using a mechanism close to pinocytosis [2]. The formation of complexes "protein-protein" and dissociation — a common mechanism of intracellular transport processes. In the cytoplasm are steroid receptors, containing in the structure domain "C4 zinc finger". In the absence of this steroid hormone receptor is associated with protein hsp 90 (heat stock protein), which is always present in the cytoplasm. With the appearance of a steroid hormone the inactive complex dissociates and the steroid hormone binds to the receptor, forming an active complex, which goes to the nucleus where it binds to regulatory site of the target gene and activates (or represses) the transcription [31].

Modern ideas about the permeability of the cytoplasmic and nuclear membranes show that for penetration through these membranes exist in the diffusion path.

In addition to the previously known ion channels and processes of pinocytosis, open channels formed by a family of transmembrane proteins Parinov present in mitochondrial and cytoplasmic membranes [25]. These proteins are composed of up to 50% hydrophilic amino acids and structural motifs amphiphilic a-helix. However, most of the peptide chain is in the R-conformation. Several transmembrane chains Parinov form a barrel-shaped (barrel-shaped) pores, which are permeable for small hydrophilic and amphiphilic molecules (urea, glycerin, tryptophan, etc.). For example, when the difference of the concentrations of tryptophan 0.001 M diffusion flux through the membrane is 600 molecules per second across 1 µm2 of membrane surface [12. R. 509].

Parinov family includes the subfamily of aquaporins — proteins that control the flow of water into the cell and out of cells depending on small changes in pH of the environment [17].

Membrane of the nucleus also have a developed system of transport pores formed by protein complexes nucleoporins that control the transport nucleoprotein complexes in the nucleus and from the nucleus [33]. Inner diameter nucleopore is about 42 n. m so that they are permeable to the diffusing molecules with molecular weight up to 5000 Da [27. R, 69].

Thus, the possibility of penetration of short peptides in the cell and in the cell nucleus does not cause any fundamental doubts. Our experiments are consistent with the views on the penetration of short peptides into the cell and its nucleus, as after adding the peptide into the cell culture revealed changes in the status of chromatin, In [1, 8, 13] on the cells in tissue culture it has been proven that short synthetic peptides not only enter a cell through cytoplasmic and nuclear membranes, but also participate in the activation of some genes, in particular gene telomerase [5].

In [9], we studied the influence of short synthetic peptides to changes in the heterochromatin in leukocytes and detected activation of ribosomal genes, decondensation densely Packed fibrils of chromatin and release of genes repressed in the result of age-related condensation euchromatin areas of cells.

To date, however, there is an obvious gap between the numerous observations of the regulatory influences of neurohormones and synthetic oligopeptides on the state of chromatin and the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of selective binding of these peptides with premodernity portions of genes.

Among short synthetic peptides, studied by us earlier in relation to the activation of chromatin, the greatest efficiency was shown by the synthetic pineal tetrapeptide (Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly) [1, 4, 8, 9]. This peptide is also of particular interest, since he has a high geroprotective activity. We investigated the structural features of this peptide to find the parameters of correspondence between specific for the peptide amino acid sequence and the sequence of nucleotides in the double helix structure of DNA. A model of the specific binding peptide with the recognition site on promotera the portion of a gene, based on the principle of geometrical and electrochemical complementarity pravostoronnikh two molecules of the peptide and of the DNA double helix.