Aging is a biological process which in contrast to the time influenced. People have always tried to slow down aging and prolong life, but only in the 20th century, scientists have brought dreams to reality in the 21st century suggested a cure for old age.
No matter how perfect was not a cure for age-related diseases, to save people from the onset of old age for them. What is cause and what is consequence: diseases Lee provoke the onset of old age or the aging process causes of the disease. This is the main question the answer to which can be the key to longevity!
Most people are struggling with the consequences, not causes of aging. Today, there are over three hundred theories about the causes of aging, but neither one of them has not yet been confirmed.
Nurses blood. The theory of macrophages.
Scientists of the Siberian research Institute of biochemistry in the search for truth drew attention to the human immune system, amazingly, the human immune system begins to weaken in 12-15 years, the immunity of the 20-year old is lower than that of a teenager. The aging process starts much earlier than we want, and we are literally remains one small moment, and then begins the struggle with the disease, with old age. To old age protection of the body is weakened so that the diseases are harmless in youth, are deadly.
All our cells originate in the process of cell division, undergo a life cycle and then die. The life cycle of a cell is a certain number of divisions and the formation of new cells replace the old. Doubling is a key mechanism of cellular division, resulting in the need to form two identical cells, the structure of the nucleus which 2 identical DNA. Cells of the immune system are updated slightly differently and the key role they have to play birth of macrophages.
Macrophages – a type of white blood cells. With the birth follow the purity of our body on a cellular level, they find a microscopic threat and destroy it. Dead enemy cells macrophages eat, concluding inside its shell.
Macrophages are learning to recognize the enemy gradually. With most viruses and infections we encounter in the first years of life. For cell cleaners is a period of learning. Later, encountering alien objects, they destroy them quickly and efficiently. Therefore, disease, childhood, adult pose a serious danger.
Capturing the degradation products of cells, a macrophage from the environment captures a certain specific protein. He throws it into the environment, where live viable cells invading him, and they start the process of cell division. Macrophages other cells are introduced to a new enemy and help you recognize it in the future.
Destroying an enemy cell, the macrophage distinguishes protein factor – signal substance that triggers the multiplication of immune cells. So macrophages support our protective system, relieve it of trash and forced to improve. But macrophages are not able to be updated forever, the older the person, the less they become. If the function of macrophages is not high enough, not active enough, the body can get into a state of immunodeficiency. To increase the number of special cells you can use the donation. In the blood of a young organism are still a lot of macrophages, but in this case, the important genetic work, donors can only be close relatives. But what if the body receives not the cause but the consequence, no additional macrophages, and the protein that starts the reproduction. Immune cells?! Scientists have set a goal to start the formation of this specific protein and has launched a process of obtaining recombinant protein, i.e., not synthesized in the human body, and the artificial, laboratory conditions.
To synthesize a protein is not the most difficult task for today, it is more difficult to achieve its full compatibility with the human body that all the same the immune system is not took him for an enemy spy.
Artificial signal protein tested on cells from rodents and human livers. In two cases, the agent worked perfectly. The immune cells of older mice-gerbils began to share how young individuals. The production of the drug on the basis of artificial protein is planned in 2013. Scientists believe, ampoules of anti-aging can appear in pharmacies within 2 years.
But the immune stimulant may be for mankind's salvation on one condition: if confirmed the idea of the crucial role of macrophages in aging of the entire body!... but what if aging other causes, if each of our cells are pre-programmed for death at a certain age?!
The shelf life of the cells. Telomere theory.
Any living organism, whether human, animal or plant grows old and dies in the fullness of his time. Everyone has a shelf life, prolong it, no matter how perfect the conditions were. Growth and development occur by cell division, each new cell is an exact copy of the original. Handed over power to the novice the cage, the original eventually dies, but data on the structure and features of the body is maintained by her followers.
Chromosome - is the structure of DNA, which contains all the characteristics of a person. In simplified form, the chromosomes can be represented in the form of two crossed spirals, the ends of which have protective caps – telomeres, which are divided together with the cage, but with each new cycle is becoming shorter and shorter. When they are shortened to a certain minimum, the cell ceases to divide. This is actually the structure on a cellular level.
Telomeres can share no more than 50 times when they be shortest, the cell can no longer divide and dies, that is the body with age and loses its ability to recover. In favor of the theory of shortening of telomeres and says the phenomenon called "premature aging." However, not all the telomeres shelf life is limited. In germ and cancer cells they can divide endlessly, not shortening. It's all in the enzyme telomerase. He builds new cells in the missing pieces and the DNA is recreated in the same size, in other cells in the body telomerase is also there, but it was not active.
A group of Russian scientists have created a drug that will stimulate sleep enzyme. Experiments were carried out on mice, rats, flies etc that the introduction of these substances has led to an increase in the average duration of life by 25-30%, the maximum increase in life expectancy was 42%. Drugs that have passed a serious the test peptides - short protein fragments that are able to run the program, restore the telomeres at the genetic level. How successful peptides cope with this problem could tell those of the laboratory mouse, by human standards, they live incredibly long and almost sick. These mice live about 2, 5 years, when compared with the human age of 120 years. The experiments were conducted over 30 years, and the last few years peptides take the group of volunteers, about 300 people. Mortality in the group of people who took the peptides was 40% lower compared with the control group, i.e. the rate of aging has slowed and the mortality rate decreased. With the help of the peptides were able to achieve not only an increase in life expectancy and a substantial improvement of health for patients.
But guarantee the peptides of eternal youth?!
Because of reasons, which can damage the body, very much. And one of them is the air we breathe, or rather it contained oxygen.
Poisonous oxygen. The free radical theory of aging.
With the external signs of aging people struggle for a long time. Wrinkles, age spots, loss of skin elasticity. For each problem there are hundreds of creams and serums, but to prevent the aging process impossible. In our cells, in the majority, there is a very peculiar organelle, it is our power plant, in which is formed. the energy providing our lives. Such power plants are mitochondria, they oxidize nutrients oxygen and produce energy, creating charge on its own membrane, but this process is accompanied by a side effect in addition to energy, mitochondria constantly produce poison - active oxygen species are free radicals. Free radicals are overactive substances that carry in orbit of one of its atoms are unpaired electron. Mitochondria are able to make them from ordinary oxygen. In search of a suitable pair for a single electron, these molecules move chaotically through the body, thus oxidize various substances in the cells, thereby destroying them. From the point of view of biology, this unregulated process and if it reaches DNA, it will be very bad. Active oxygen is the main cause of wrinkles, reducing the activity of joint mobility and the many ailments of old age. For 70 years the human body has time to process more than a ton of oxygen as a poison during that time will produce the mitochondria it is impossible to imagine. Sliced Apple on the air quickly darkens. This oxidizes the iron contained in it, similarly the active oxygen oxidizes and the whole body. Scientists from Moscow state University believe that the mitochondria form an especially active form of oxygen, to wear out, and then kill us. So, in their view, is implemented is written in our genes program the aging. To confirm this hypothesis, an experiment was proposed, and it proposed a set of substances purposefully directed to the mitochondria that intercept free radicals in their place of education. These substances are called antioxidants, mention of them can be found on the packaging of many products –cocoa, green tea, vegetable or fruit juices. Antioxidants are substances that easily donate electrons to oxygen, neutralizing is evil, and themselves, for whatever reason, are not radicals. A Cup of tea or a liter of juice slow down the aging process is not capable. With irreversible processes in the organism can handle only substances that a point impact on the mitochondria. It is a unique substances created in the laboratories of the Moscow state University. One well-studied, the other began to study a few years ago. The first stage of the experiment is study the mechanisms of antioxidants on the model cell in the body. Millimeter hole cells are stretched to a thin film that mimic the cell membrane. In the experiment, the scientists will understand how easily a substance can penetrate inside the cell. Cope with this problem, an antioxidant, is tested on living cells. The use of cellular structures the most simple model that can predict properties of compounds that we synthesize. In the future they can take away and explore, only the best connection. The purpose of the experiment to find out whether cells survive from the effects of the oxidant, if you to protect them. Initially, the material is treated with an antioxidant before adding the usual oxidizing agent is hydrogen peroxide, usually it starts the process of programmed cell death. The likelihood that decided to commit suicide, the cell will survive, big.
What happens inside is reflected in the eyes literally, with age often develop cataracts, a clouding of the eye lens, one of the causes of senile blindness. The lens consists of special protein - cristalina, normally it is completely transparent, but when exposed to free radicals can thicken.
The first drug on the basis of the antioxidants already passed all the tests, its effectiveness was tested on rabbits. They received the drug from age-related blindness from birth. The drug looks like regular eye drops. For the year of the experiment revealed no adverse effects and confirmed the effectiveness of the drug. The animals have disappeared cataracts, normal eye, the retina, the most powerful effect is achieved in preventing, if dripped from his youth, these diseases did not develop. Antioxidant product of the old man's blindness is just the beginning! Scientists plan to create a systemic drug that will protect all the mitochondria in the body from damage.
What medicine will save us from old age, only time will tell , but it will confirm or deny a particular opening, but probably one magic pill still should not be.
One thing you can't explain the aging, each theory starts from a authentic factor, but it's part of the puzzle. Remained a puzzle to assemble into a single and then a cure for old age will be found. Proponents of different theories are called about the same time - 10-15 years. It was then that humanity should see the cure for old age.